The world of mushrooms is interesting and very various. About 100 thousand species of mushrooms are known. In these organisms signs as plants, and animal are combined. Signs of plants is an immovability, continuous growth, food by the dissolved substances, existence of cellular walls. At the same time mushrooms bear in themselves signs of animals: lack of plastids and ability to photosynthesis, existence in cellular walls of special substance – chitin (covers of such animals as insects, spiders, crayfish consist of chitin). Mushrooms have also the signs peculiar only to them: almost at all mushrooms the vegetative body represents a mycelium, or the mycelium consisting of threads – hyphas. On all these signs mushrooms allocate in a special kingdom of live organisms.
The body of a shlyapochny mushroom consists of two parts: the mycelium consisting of thin multicellular threads – hyphas and a fruit body. The fruit body is that in use and call a mushroom, too consists of hyphas, only here they are very densely bound.
All edible fungi in the known world possess medicinal properties. The various vitamins necessary for a normal metabolism in an organism, do mushroom dishes in the summer and in the winter irreplaceable in our menu. So chanterelles and saffron milk caps are rich with vitamin A (carotene), aspen mushrooms, birch mushrooms, russulas, honey agarics – B1 vitamin ().
Mushrooms contain valuable fatty substances which are almost completely acquired by a human body. Dried cepes broth several times kaloriyny the meat. Dried mushrooms surpass in nutritiousness even meat and sausage. In mushrooms of people receives microcells necessary for it – zinc, manganese, iodine and copper. The special aromatic and extractive substances containing in mushrooms impact them pleasant relish and a smell.
It is known that not all parts of a mushroom on nutritiousness are equivalent. Contains in legs of mushrooms – the chemical giving to cages special durability. Because of it legs of mushrooms are acquired more difficultly, than hats. Malopitatelen the turned yellow lower sporiferous layer of old tubular mushrooms – white, birch mushrooms and slippery jacks. It is better to cut off it. The tubular layer of a mushroom keeps the nutritional value only until in it disputes were not formed.
The fruit body is educated a hat and a leg, or penky. If to consider a hat from the lower party, at one mushrooms openings of tubules, and at others – a plate are visible. Therefore on a structure of the lower layer of a hat distinguish tubular and lamellar mushrooms.
The mycelium or as it differently call a mycelium, on the structure at all shlyapochny mushrooms is similar. And here fruit bodies are very various and often brightly painted in lilac, red, greenish, is bright – yellow and other colors. However at mushrooms never happens hloroplast, other plastids.
Having got to favorable conditions, that is in warm and damp, dispute sprouts in a hypha. Hyphas grow, branch, the number of cages in them increases. The mycelium consisting of a set of hyphas is gradually formed. The mycelium, or a mycelium, is a vegetative part of a mushroom. It is that white "web" well familiar to mushroom pickers which it is often possible to see in the wood on the fallen-down boughs and leaves, on the naked soil. But the main part of a mycelium is hidden under a soil surface.
The majority of mushrooms form fruit bodies at the end of summer and in an early autumn. But there are also very early mushrooms. At the end of April in a midland collect morels. Quarrels at them are formed not on lower, and on the top party of their wrinkled hats.
Mycelium – the main condition of a mushroom. In this look the mushroom can arrive a long time, however reproduction requires maturing dispute. Where there is too much mushroom pickers and fruit bodies do not manage to give disputes, mushrooms thin and even disappear at all, as, for example, near the lying cities.
People gather mushrooms from time immemorial. Both forest animals, and some pets love them. Elks eat fresh mushrooms, and proteins make them for the winter. One small animal can dry to himself for the summer to six hundred grams of edible fungi.