Representing unity, formidable even at the level of the theoretical analysis, the categories "society" and "culture" at the same time designate within one system two poles with oppositional functions and meanings:
— for preservation of viable values and the phenomena of culture of the past, characteristic for all components of the sociocultural environment (in the subject and spatial world preservation, restoration and reconstruction of historical and cultural monuments, the architectural environment; in human relations support of traditional examples of behavior and communication adequate to the present; in the informative and estimated sphere — storage and introduction to a cultural turn of texts of humanitarian culture of the past).
The idea of development which is the cornerstone of this type of projects is defined to some extent by understanding and understanding of impossibility to solve problems at the expense of resources of that culture, which (or which fragments) is object of design activity. When as a result of a reflection of a situation limitation of a cash condition of rather new tasks and problems is found, the program thinking becomes means of formation of model of development. The exit seems in radical change of cultural reality by introduction of new cultural norms, values, technologies, activization of mechanisms of introduction of innovations.
The culture as result represents set of traditions, norms, values, meanings, ideas, sign systems, characteristic for a social community (in a broad sense this word — including ethnos, the nation, society) and carrying out the functions of social orientation providing accessory, consolidation of human communities, individual self-determination of the personality. In the procedural plan the culture is activity (persons, social groups, institutes, societies in various spheres of life and consciousness, representing specifically human way of transformation of natural inclinations and opportunities, it is unity of an opredmechivaniye (productions and a raspredmechivaniye (consumption) — creation of traditions, norms, values, ideas and their development, storage, broadcasting, their transformation into internal qualities of the personality.
In culturological and social and pedagogical literature all variety of individual and social activity in the sphere of culture is characterized by the category "welfare activity" which designates as various phenomena of social and cultural life, and special technologies. In this regard it is necessary to have a clear view more of that reality which has to become a subject of practical activities (and first of all — design) for a wide range of professions of a welfare and social and pedagogical orientation.
Society as the phenomenon, a subject of the analysis and object of design it is possible to present in the form basic social subjects (social groups, the organizations, institute which are many-sided, typical and steady public educations, and also processes of "social mechanics", i.e. social interactions, the relations. Initial characteristics in the analysis of a sociological perspective are the status and a social role.
"Social" and "cultural" are dissolved in each other because at any social phenomenon always there is a person as the carrier of social roles and cultural values. The person is primary "atom" of social structures, the relations and cultural processes.
In the second type of projects the dominating task is export of own cultural samples (values, norms, technologies) to "others" cultural context which thanks to it is modified, will "artificially" be transformed. Modern processes of modernization in developing countries can be an example of such design practice. They proceed in the presence of the developed modernization cultural models which are exported and reproduced in other regions and sociocultural contexts. The cultural sample is considered by the subject of modernization (designer) as a perfect condition of "foreign" culture, thus the last either resists to modernization, or supports her. Therefore the project of this kind has to include not only conditions of introduction of a cultural sample, but also mechanisms of blocking of possible counteraction.
— development and active use in actual space of activity of cultural heritage (elements of subject Wednesday of the past, viable traditional customs, customs, rituals, etc.)